0.2% (or 83,529) taxpayers have IRA account balances of $2,000,000 to $3,000,000, 0.1% (or 36,171) taxpayers have IRA account balances of $3,000,000 to $5,000,000, <0.1% (or 7,952) taxpayers have IRA account balances of $5,000,000 to $10,000,000, <0.1% (or 791) taxpayers have IRA account balances of $10,000,000 to $25,000,000, <0.1% (or 314) taxpayers have IRA account balances of $25,000,000 or more, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 18:20. Rollovers, transfers, and conversions between IRAs and other retirement arrangements can include any asset. For Roth IRAs with only contributed funds the basis can be withdrawn before age 59 without penalty (or tax) on a first in first out basis, and a penalty would apply only on any growth (the taxable amount) that was taken out before 59 where an exception didn't apply. According to one commentator, some minor planning can turn the 2-month period previously mentioned into an indefinite loan. For example, if an employee earns $40,000 5 MAGI for Roth IRA purposes 6 MAGI for net investment income tax 7 MAGI for premium tax credit 8 MAGI for rental passive loss allowance 9 MAGI for student loan interest deductibility 10 MAGI for Medicare premiums (IRMAA . It was developed in the United States in the year Individuals who find themselves disqualified from a Roth IRA may contribute to their Roth 401(k). [8] In 1981, the Economic Recovery Tax Act (ERTA) allowed all working taxpayers under the age of 70 to contribute to an IRA, regardless of their coverage under a qualified plan. Attempting to transfer any other type of asset. [23] However, this type of protection does not usually exist in the case of divorce, failure to pay taxes, deeds of trust, and fraud. [32] This report gives the GAO's estimate on the number of taxpayers with IRAs as well as the estimated account balances. Learn how they work so you can take full advantage of them. It began with this comment: I’m almost 75 and therefore taking annual RMD’s. [34], According to a study done by the National Institute on Retirement Security, titled "The Continuing Retirement Savings Crisis", 45% of working Americans do not own any retirement account assets, whether in an employer-based 401(k) type plan or an IRA. The percentage was much higher for Roth IRAs: 7.2% of owners of traditional or rollover IRAs (same for contribution purposes) contributed, while 29.5% of owners of Roth IRAs contributed. "The Hidden Costs Of Roth IRAs". [19] The law provides that "such amount may be increased if the interests of justice so require." [14] Unless an exception applies, money can typically be withdrawn penalty free as taxable income from an IRA once the owner reaches age 59 years and 6 months. Here's how a Roth IRA works, who qualifies and FAQs. Roth IRA rules dictate that as long as you've owned your account for 5 years* and you're age 59½ or older, you can [37] In 2010, Duncan Black wrote in an opinion column in USA Today that the median household retirement account balance for workers aged 55 to 64 was $120,000, which "will provide only a trivial supplement to Social Security", but a third of households had no retirement savings at all.[38]. 3. While there are only a few restrictions on what can be invested inside an IRA, some restrictions pertain to actions which would create a prohibited transaction with those investments. This should […] In Seven Steps to Creating Passive Income through Dividend Investing a couple readers got into a discussion. The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005 expanded the protection for IRAs. (Only applies to IRAs) I exceed the income limit for making fully-deductible contributions to a Traditional IRA, but am below the Roth IRA phase-out income limits. SEP IRAs and SIMPLE IRAs also have additional rules similar to those for qualified plans governing how contributions can and must be made and what employees are qualified to participate. Roth was also the legislative sponsor of the individual retirement account plan that bears his name, the Roth IRA. Traditional IRA - Contributions to a traditional IRA are, depending on income, tax status and whether the taxpayer has a retirement plan sponsored by his or her employer. As a general rule of thumb, the decision as to which IRA an investor elects to use is a function of expected present and future tax rates. Each exception has detailed rules that must be followed to be exempt from penalties. One strategy I’m using is to transfer stocks, which are down by the largest percentage, from my regular IRA to my Roth IRA. Alternatively, multiple beneficiaries can split the inherited IRA into separate accounts, in which case the RMD rules will apply separately to each separate account. 98.5% of taxpayers have IRA account balances at $1,000,000 or less. [35], While inflation-adjusted stock market values generally rose from 1978 to 1997, in March 2013, they were lower than during the period 1998 through 2007. Hope this helps. In both 2015 and 2016, a taxpayer can contribute to a traditional or Roth IRA up to $ 5,500. Unlike the Roth IRA, there is no upper income limit capping eligibility for Roth 401(k) contributions. In accordance with the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005, IRAs are protected from creditors during bankruptcy up to $1,000,000 (inflation-adjusted; $1,245,475 as of 2014). If over age 50, the contribution can be up to $ 6,500. There used to be restrictions on conversions due to income or tax filing status. 11 USC section 522(n); see also Internal Revenue Code of 1986 sections 408 and 408A. Self-directed IRAs which hold alternative investments such as real estate, horses, or intellectual property, can involve more complexity than IRAs which only hold stocks or mutual funds. Individual retirement arrangements were introduced in 1974 with the enactment of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA). The maximum for tax years 2019 and 2020 is $6,000. The Roth IRA conversion works this way: You take a distribution from your traditional IRA or 401(k) and contribute that money into a Roth IRA. Tax Year 2020 (Traditional) 401(k) Roth 401(k) Traditional IRA Roth IRA Tax benefit Capital gains, dividends, and interest within account incur no tax liability. disqualifies the IRA from special tax treatment. Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, environmental, social and corporate governance, Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, IRS Publication 590-A, "Contributions to Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs)", Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act, Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 2005, "Publication 590: Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRA)", "Self Directed IRA Custodians (IRS Compliant)", "IRAs Congress' big gift to working Americans", "Tax Bill Prompts Questions, Questions, and Answers", "Retirement Topics - Catch-Up Contributions", "72(t) Basics - Potential Pitfalls of Early Retirement Withdrawals", "Publication 590-B (2019), Distributions from Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs)", "26 CFR 1.408-4, Treatment of distributions from individual retirement arrangements", "Publication 590 (2005), Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs)", Nevada Revised Statutes Section 21.075 - Civil Practice, "Inherited IRAs lose bankruptcy protection", "Supreme Court: Inherited IRAs Don't Qualify for Bankruptcy Exemption", "Bobrow v. Commissioner, TC Memo 2014-21 (2014)", "Convention Between Canada and the United States of America With Respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital", "INDIVIDUAL RETIREMENT ACCOUNTS: IRS Could Bolster Enforcement on Multimillion Dollar Accounts, but More Direction from Congress Is Needed", http://www.nirsonline.org/storage/nirs/documents/RSC%202015/final_rsc_2015.pdf, "S&P 500 Stock Price Index (SP500)/Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers: All Items (CPIAUCSL)", 1960-March 2013, "Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP) - Canada.ca", "Court shields IRAs from bankruptcy seizure", IRS Publication 590 (2005), Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRAs), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Individual_retirement_account&oldid=999342514, Tax-advantaged savings plans in the United States, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2015, Articles needing examples from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2015, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, An IRA can be funded only with cash or cash equivalents. Here are some sources I plan on using: Cohn, Peter (2010-07-24). This year she can fully fund her Roth. Average and median balances increased with age, reaching a maximum in the 65–69 age group, before leveling off for 70 and over. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Roth 401 (k) is a type of retirement savings plan. Roth IRA contributions are after tax, so you put in money that you've already paid tax on, and all capital gains are tax free, plus any withdrawals after retirement age are tax free. There were concerns raised about whether the tax incentives encourage new or additional saving. (On the other hand, alimony and separate maintenance payments, if taxable, are eligible.). Self-directed IRA custodians, or IRA custodians who specialize in alternative investments, are better equipped to handle transactions involving alternative investments. The principal difference between Roth IRAs and most other tax-advantaged Many IRA custodians limit available investments to traditional brokerage accounts such as stocks, bonds, and mutual funds. If you have earned income and your modified adjusted gross income is below a certain level, you can contribute to a Roth IRA. Publicly traded securities such as options, futures or other derivatives are allowed in IRAs, but certain custodians or brokers may restrict their use. [13] Self-directed IRA custodians/administrators can allow real estate and other non-traditional assets held in forms other than a REIT, such as a piece of rental property, raw land, or fishing rights. An example of such benefit would be the use of the real estate as the owner's personal residence, allowing a parent to live in the property, or allowing the IRA account owner to fix a leaky toilet. [8] The contributions could be invested in a special United States bond paying six percent interest, annuities that begin paying upon reaching age 59, or a trust maintained by a bank or an insurance company. The dollar amounts of the thresholds vary depending on tax filing status (single, married, etc.) トラディショナルIRAとRoth IRAの2つの口座に積立てることもできますが、上限はあわせて6,000ドル(または7,000ドル)です。たとえば、今年トラディショナルIRA口座に既に3,500ドル積立てているとしたら、Roth IRA口座には2,500ドルまで Many states have laws that prohibit judgments from lawsuits to be satisfied by seizure of IRA assets. Beginning in 2002, those over 50 years old could make an additional contribution of up to $1,000 called a "catch-up contribution".[11]. While many rollovers were small (28.5% were less than $5,000, and 53.1% were less than $25,000), a significant number of rollovers were quite large, with 20.2% being more than $100,000. I qualify for tax deductions/credits that I won't qualify for in retirement (like child tax credit, mortgage interest deduction, etc. Starting with the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (EGTRRA), many of the restrictions of what type of funds could be rolled into an IRA and what type of plans IRA funds could be rolled into were significantly relaxed. Under a Roth IRA, first enacted in 1998, individuals, whether employees or self-employed, voluntarily contribute post-tax funds to an individual retirement arrangement (IRA). Other IRAs (rollovers from most employer sponsored retirement plans (401(k)s, etc.) The money then compounds tax-free. Roth IRA contributions are after tax, so you put in money that you've already paid tax on, and all capital gains are tax free, plus any withdrawals after retirement age are tax free. An example of an exception is a non-governmental 457 plan which cannot be rolled into anything but another non-governmental 457 plan. The tax treatment of the above types of IRAs (except for Roth IRAs) are very similar, particularly for rules regarding distributions. But if you convert a 401(k) directly into a Roth IRA, you disregard your other 401(k)s and IRAs in determining the percentage of the conversion that's taxable. Although funds can be distributed from an IRA at any time, there are limited circumstances when money can be distributed or withdrawn from the account without penalties. and on which spouse is covered at work (see, The portion of unreimbursed medical expenses that are more than 7.5% of adjusted gross income, Distributions that are not more than the cost of medical insurance while unemployed, Disability (defined as not being able to engage in any substantial gainful activity), Amounts distributed to beneficiaries of a deceased IRA owner, Distributions in the form of an annuity (see, Distributions that are not more than the qualified, Distributions to buy, build, or rebuild a first home ($10,000 lifetime maximum), Distribution due to an IRS levy of the plan. Double taxation still occurs within these tax-sheltered investment arrangements. The historical Roth IRA contribution limits have steady increased since the Roth IRA was first introduced in 1997. Essentially, most retirement plans can be rolled into an IRA after meeting certain criteria, and most retirement plans can accept funds from an IRA. The amount of the traditional IRA contributions that can be deducted is partially reduced for levels of income beyond a threshold, and eliminated entirely beyond another threshold, if the contributor or the contributor's spouse is covered by an employer-based retirement plan. A Roth Individual Retirement Arrangement (Roth IRA) is subject to special rules that do not apply to other types of retirement accounts. What is a Roth IRA? It is a popular individual retirement account that … In case of spouse inherited IRAs, the owner's spouse has the following options: In case of non-spouse inherited IRAs, the beneficiary cannot choose to treat the IRA as his or her own, but the following options are available: In case of multiple beneficiaries the distribution amounts are based on the oldest beneficiary's age. [citation needed] One key reason is that some qualified plans will accept rollovers from IRAs only if they are conduit/rollover IRAs. If over age 50, the contribution can be up to $ 6,500. 5 MAGI for Roth IRA purposes 6 MAGI for net investment income tax 7 MAGI for premium tax credit 8 MAGI for rental passive loss allowance 9 MAGI for student loan interest deductibility 10 MAGI for Medicare premiums (IRMAA . The 2005 BAPCPA also increased the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insurance limit for IRA deposits at banks. Almost anyone with a traditional IRA can convert it to a Roth IRA. For tax year 2011 (the most recent year available), an estimated 43 million taxpayers had individual retirement accounts (IRAs) with a total reported fair market value (FMV) of $5.2 trillion. Next year she will make waaay too much. The average is significantly higher than the median (over three times higher), reflecting significant. If you are a beginner investor just open the Vanguard Roth and put it in their target 2065 fund then come back in 2020 … Follow the wiki flow chart here How to Handle Money I have Vanguard so I'm going to advocate go straight to them but do what you think is best. An indirect rollover can be used to temporarily "borrow" money from the IRA, once in a twelve-month period. An individual retirement account[1] (IRA) in the United States is a form of "individual retirement plan",[2] provided by many financial institutions, that provides tax advantages for retirement savings. A Roth IRA offers many benefits to retirement savers. There is some controversy over whether this violates tax treaties, such as the Convention Between Canada and the United States of America With Respect to Taxes on Income and on Capital.[28]. Roth IRAs, on the other hand, have income-eligibility restrictions: For 2020, singles must have a MAGI of less than $139,000, with contributions being phased out starting with a MAGI … There are a number of other important details that govern different situations. Roth was also the legislative sponsor of the individual retirement account plan that bears his name, the Roth IRA. Once you open a Roth IRA, you may be able to make contributions into the account The average and median IRA account balance was $54,863 and $15,756, respectively, while the average and median IRA individual balance (all accounts from the same person combined) was $69,498 and $20,046. and non-rollover SEP and SIMPLE IRAs) are entirely exempt.[20]. Also that there are an estimate of 791 taxpayers with IRA account balances between $10,000,000 and $25,000,000. [16], There are several exceptions to the rule that penalties apply to distributions before age 59​1⁄2. take out the assets in a lump-sum cash distribution, which may lead the beneficiary to be subject to federal taxes that could take away a significant portion of the assets. An example of this is a real estate purchase within a self-directed IRA along with a non-recourse mortgage. Traditional IRA - Contributions to a traditional IRA are, depending on income, tax status and whether the taxpayer has a retirement plan sponsored by his or her employer. The IRA or the individual retirement account is a retirement plan with tax benefits (money invested in a traditional IRA is tax exempt to a certain extent). The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit has ruled that if an IRA engages in a "prohibited transaction" under Internal Revenue Code sections 408(e)(2) and 4975(c)(1), the assets in the IRA will no longer qualify for bankruptcy protection. The last two types, Rollover IRAs and Conduit IRAs, are viewed by some as obsolete under current tax law (their functions have been subsumed by the Traditional IRA), but this tax law is set to expire unless extended. De Roth IRA werd opgericht door de Belastingplichtige Relief Act van 1997(Public Law 105-34) en vernoemd naar zijn belangrijkste wetgevende sponsor, senator William Rothvan Delaware. IRA vs Roth IRA comparison. This limit applies to the total annual contributions to both Roth IRAs and traditional IRAs. A Roth IRA offers many benefits to retirement savers. For example, a person aged 45, who put $3,500 into a traditional IRA this year so far, can either put $2,000 more into this traditional IRA, or $2,000 in a Roth IRA, or some combination of those. A Roth IRA is a retirement account in which after-tax money grows tax-free and withdrawals are tax-free. [25] Some state laws, however, may protect inherited IRAs from creditors in bankruptcy.[24]. [33] This can occur when IRA owners invest in shares of private companies, and the share value subsequently rises substantially. Some assets are allowed according to the IRC, but the custodians may add additional restrictions for accounts held in their custody. section 522(b)(3)(C). Subjected taxes Contributions are usually pre-tax; but can also be post-tax, if allowed by plan. Few taxpayers had aggregated balances exceeding $5 million as of 2011. A Roth IRA is an individual retirement account that offers tax-free growth and tax-free withdrawals in retirement. The Roth IRA was established by the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997 (Public Law 105-34) and named for its chief legislative sponsor, Senator William Roth of Delaware. In both 2015 and 2016, a taxpayer can contribute to a traditional or Roth IRA up to $ 5,500. Congress is reexamining retirement tax incentives as part of tax reform. Roth IRAs have been around since 1997, while Roth 401 (k)s came into existence in 2001. Tax Year 2021 (Traditional) 401(k) Roth 401(k) Traditional IRA Roth IRA Tax benefit Capital gains, dividends, and interest within account incur no tax liability. In 2021, the Roth IRA contribution limit remains at $6,000, with a $1,000 catch-up contribution if you are 50 or over. An individual retirement account is a type of "individual retirement arrangement"[3] as described in IRS Publication 590, individual retirement arrangements (IRAs). Additional legislation since 2001 has further relaxed restrictions. Named for Senator William V. Roth, Jr., the Roth IRA was introduced as part of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997. myRA – a 2014 Obama administration initiative based on the Roth IRA Many investors will face a choice between investing i… Distributions will be determined by the, disclaim up to 100% of the IRA assets, which, besides avoiding extra taxable income, enables their children to inherit the IRA assets, take all of the IRA assets out in one lump-sum, which can subject the spouse to federal taxes if particular requirements are not met. Oh my, sounds important, read on >>> If you are wondering what is a Roth IRA, I am here to provide you the answer in a colloquial manner that, hopefully, will shed some light and humor on how well (or poorly) you’ll be spending your retirement years. Some highlights from the 2008 data follow:[31]. [8], Initially, ERISA restricted IRAs to workers who were not covered by a qualified employment-based retirement plan. トラディショナルIRAとRoth IRAの2つの口座に積立てることもできますが、上限はあわせて6,000ドル(または7,000ドル)です。たとえば、今年トラディショナルIRA口座に既に3,500ドル積立てているとしたら、Roth IRA口座には2,500ドルまで It's something that could determine how well (or poorly) you'll be spending your retirement years. IRAs were divided by type as 33.6% traditional IRAs, 33.4% rollover IRAs (combined with the traditional IRAs, 67 percent), 23.4% Roth IRAs, and 9.6% SEPs and SIMPLEs. Certain IRAs (rollovers from SEP or Simple IRAs, Roth IRAs, individual IRAs) are exempt up to at least $1,000,000 (adjusted periodically for inflation) without having to show necessity for retirement. [citation needed] The Roth … For example, IRAs are protected up to $500,000 in Nevada from Writs of Execution. A Roth IRA is an individual retirement account (IRA) under United States law that is generally not taxed upon distribution, provided certain conditions are met. [21], With respect to inherited IRAs, the United States Supreme Court ruled, in the case of Clark v. Rameker in June 2014, that funds in an inherited IRA do not qualify as "retirement funds" within the meaning of the federal bankruptcy exemption statute, 11 U.S.C. This should […] [29], Detailed statistics on IRAs have been collected by the Employee Benefit Research Institute, in its EBRI IRA Database (Center for Research on IRAs),[30] and various analyses performed. A Roth IRA is an individual retirement account that offers tax-free growth and tax-free withdrawals in retirement. If the required minimum distribution (RMD) is not taken the penalty is 50% of the amount that should have been taken. The rules regarding IRA rollovers and transfers allow the IRA owner to perform an "indirect rollover" to another IRA. For employees, the employer may contribute up to 25% of the employee's wages to the employee's SEP-IRA account. This is excellent if you think you'll be in a higher tax Subjected taxes Contributions are usually pre-tax; but can also be post-tax, if allowed by plan. ; but can also be post-tax, if allowed by plan. What is a Backdoor Roth IRA? [4] The term IRA, used to describe both individual retirement accounts and the broader category of individual retirement arrangements, encompasses an individual retirement account; a trust or custodial account set up for the exclusive benefit of taxpayers or their beneficiaries; and an individual retirement annuity,[5] by which the taxpayers purchase an annuity contract or an endowment contract from a life insurance company.[6]. Roth IRA – contributions are made with after-tax assets, all transactions within the IRA have no tax impact, and withdrawals of contributed funds are tax-free. A self-directed IRA (SDIRA) is a variation on a traditional or Roth IRA in which you can hold a variety of alternative investments, including real estate, that regular IRAs can't own. While the Internal Revenue Code (IRC) has placed a few restrictions on what can be invested in, the IRA custodian may impose additional restrictions on what assets they will custody. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a report on IRAs in November 2014. An IRA may incur debt or borrow money secured by its assets but the IRA owner may not guarantee or secure the loan personally. It's something that could determine how well (or poorly) you'll be spending your retirement years. イーライ・ロス(Eli Roth, 1972年4月18日 - )は、アメリカ・ボストン出身の映画監督、映画プロデューサー、脚本家、俳優。新世代のホラー映画監督として、注目を集めている。 It was authorized by the United States Congress under the Internal Revenue Code, section 402A, and represents a unique combination of features of the Roth IRA and a traditional 401 (k) plan. The Roth IRA is attractive for lower-income earners because you get to contribute lower-tax or no-tax money. Your age does not matter. Any loan on assets in the IRA would be required to be a non-recourse loan. … to a Roth IRA, you can withdraw your contributions any time, without penalty. A self-directed IRA is considered the same by the tax code, but refers to IRAs where the custodian allows the investor wider flexibility in choosing investments, typically including alternative investments. This often comes as a surprise to taxpayers because you cannot contribute to a traditional IRA once you reach the year you turn 70 ½. Roth IRAs are different. Thirty-four states already had laws effectively allowing an individual to exempt an IRA in bankruptcy, but the Supreme Court decision allows federal protection for IRAs. … to a Roth IRA, you can withdraw your contributions any time, without penalty. GAO was asked to measure IRA balances and assess IRS enforcement of IRA laws. In 2021, the Roth IRA contribution limit remains at $6,000, with a $1,000 catch-up contribution if you are 50 or over. The owner of the IRA may not pledge the IRA as security against an outside debt. [36] This has caused IRAs to perform substantially more poorly than expected when current retirees were investing the bulk of their savings in them. In the case of Rousey v. Jacoway, the United States Supreme Court ruled unanimously on April 4, 2005, that under section 522(d)(10)(E) of the United States Bankruptcy Code (11 U.S.C. Roth IRA rules dictate that as long as you've owned your account for 5 years* and you're age 59½ or older, you can The Roth IRA is attractive for lower-income earners because you get to contribute lower-tax or no-tax money. The U.S. Internal Revenue Code (IRC) only outlines what is not allowed in an IRA. Child support payments received. The exceptions include:[17]. 1.2% of tax payers have IRA account balances at $1,000,000 to $2,000,000. 6.3% of individuals had total balances of $250,000 or more (about 12.5 times the median),[31] and in rare cases, individuals own IRAs with very substantial balances, in some cases $100 million or above (about 5,000 times the median individual balance). [18] The Court indicated that because rights to withdrawals are based on age, IRAs should receive the same protection as other retirement plans. Oh my, sounds important, read on >>> If you are wondering what is a Roth IRA, I am here to provide you the answer in a colloquial manner that, hopefully, will shed some light and humor on how well (or poorly) you’ll be spending your retirement years. ). If the contribution to the IRA was nondeductible or the IRA owner chose not to claim a deduction for the contribution, distributions of those nondeductible amounts are tax and penalty free. SEP-IRA contributions are treated as part of a profit-sharing plan. It was developed in the United States in the year Traditional and Roth IRAs have many similarities with employer retirement plans: contributions are either pre-tax (traditional) or Roth, growth is tax-deferred or tax-free, withdrawals before age 59½ are penalized unless exceptions apply, and are subject to RMDs (except the Roth IRA). IRA(あいら、Individual Retirement Account、個人退職口座)は、アメリカの個人年金制度の一つで、税制上の特典がある。, IRAは、1974年の雇用者退職所得保障法(Employee Retirement Income Security Act, ERISA)として誕生した。2013年現在、通常IRA(Traditional IRA)とRoth IRAの二種類が代表的であり、その他に、, と呼ばれる制度がある。いずれも拠出金と運用益が非課税或いは課税繰延べの税制上の特典がある代わり、課税優遇部分を59歳半以前に引き出すと10%の罰金を課せられる(2015年現在、ただし本人死亡や全身障碍などの場合を除く)。, 拠出の原資は給与、賃金、報酬、自営業収益などの広い意味での労働の対価とストライキ期間の組合からの補償金、最低退職年齢以前の長期障碍保障などの「earned income」に限られ、社会保障や年金、保険金、課税繰延プラン(IRAや401(k)や403(b))からの引出し、利子、配当、贈与、遺産、籤や博打などの賞金や株式や不動産の売買益(キャピタルゲイン、ただしトレーダーなどそれを生業としている場合を除く)などからは拠出できない。, 2014年現在の年間拠出限度額は、それぞれのタイプのIRAにつき5,500ドル。年度中に50歳の誕生日を迎えるか、それ以上の年齢の人はさらに1,000ドル追加(合計6,500ドル)できる。ただし、すべてのIRAの拠出額の合計は上記金額(5,500ドル・6,500ドル)に制限される。すべての拠出は現金もしくは現金等価なもの(国債、上場株式・債券、CPなど)でなければならない(非上場株・社債や不動産は不可)。, 破産の際、IRA内の資産は居住する州により全額或いは裁判所が状況に応じて認める部分的に債権者から保護される(401(k)などの雇用者の提供する退職資金口座内の資産は全額保護)。IRAの資産を借金や投資の担保にすることはできない(従ってFXのようなレバレッジを使った投資運用は不可)。また、IRA所有者の子弟が奨学金を申請する時は、IRAの資産は親の資産として勘定されない(奨学金の取得に有利)。, この他に「教育IRA(Education IRA)」と呼ばれる、運用益が子弟の教育資金に使われる限り非課税となる教育資金貯蓄の優遇税制(従って退職資金とは直接は無関係)があったが、こちらはその設立に尽力したジョージア州の上院議員Paul Coverdellの名をとって「カバーデル教育貯蓄口座(Coverdell Education Savings Account、ESA)」と改名されている。, 1997年にデラウェア州の上院議員William Rothの主導により実現したためその名を讃えた制度。通常IRAとの大きな違いは以下のとおり。, 夫婦の一方が死亡したときは、残った配偶者が死亡した配偶者のIRAを引き継ぐことができ、所得税非課税の特典は継続する。配偶者から相続したIRAは相続税の対象とならず新たな拠出もできるが、配偶者でない相続人にはこの特典はない。いずれの場合も、MRDがなく、待機期間経過後は引出しに関わる所得税は完全に非課税なので、本人死亡後の相続で有利とされる。, 401(k)などの雇用主が提供する退職資金プラン加入者は、雇用元を退職後にその退職金プラン口座から資金を引き出して雇用主のプランとは無関係の「ロールオーバーIRA」口座に資金をロールオーバー(移転、roll over)することができる。ロールオーバーによる資金移動が運営会社間で直接行われれば課税上の問題はなく全額が移転されるが、一旦現金や小切手などの形で本人の手に渡る場合はロールオーバーを偽った引出し防止のために繰延所得税(20%)と59歳半前引出しの10%の罰金が源泉徴収される(後日ロールオーバーが適切に実施されれば確定申告で還付)。, 雇用主提供退職資金プランでないIRAの資金をロールオーバーすることもでき、証券会社にとっては他社にある退職資金口座内の資金を自社に取り込む絶好の機会なので宣伝などで積極的にロールオーバーを促している。, ロールオーバー元の資金には、通常401(k)・IRAとRoth 401(k)・IRAは元利課税繰延と運用益非課税の違いがあり、また通常IRAでも課税前拠出(元利課税繰延)と課税後拠出(運用益のみ課税繰延)の違いがあるので、ロールオーバー元の課税扱いに応じたタイプのロールオーバー先の口座(課税前拠出の通常IRA、課税後拠出の通常IRA、Roth IRA)に分離しなければならない。一旦ロールオーバーすると原資が雇用主提供退職資金プランから来たことは忘れられ、単に当該タイプのIRAとして扱われる。, 通常IRAを持っている人は、その残高の全部或いは一部を、課税繰延分(課税前拠出の場合は元利合計、課税後拠出の場合は運用益)に関わる所得税を払うことでRoth IRAに転換(convert)することができる。その逆の転換は原則不可だが、例外としてある年度にRoth IRAに拠出した人のその年度の所得が結果的に上記の制限を超えてしまった場合は、その年度の確定申告締切り(翌年の4月15日)までに限度超過分を通常IRAに「付替え(re-characterize)」することは可能で、通常IRAの所得制限も既に超えているので拠出分の税控除はできず運用益も将来の引出し時に課税対象になるが、運用中は課税繰延されるので通常IRAに拠出(付替え)するメリットがある。, IRAの種類にかかわらず、その年度の法定拠出限度額を超えて拠出された分は、その年度の確定申告締切りまでに付替えや修正引出し(罰金なし)をしないと、超過分が口座に残っている限り毎年6%の罰金が課税される。複数の証券会社に401(k)、通常IRA、Roth IRAなど異なる種類の優遇税制退職資金を持つ場合、証券会社間で総拠出額を監視する仕組みはなく、また証券会社は個人の所得・納税状況を把握できないので、本人が注意を払う必要がある。, Roth IRAの資金は、通常IRAからの転換分に5年間の待機期間があることを除き、運用益は将来に渡り非課税でMRDの心配もないので、引出し時に運用益(と課税前拠出なら元金)に課税される通常IRAより一般的に有利であり、通常IRAからRoth IRAへの転換が金額、年齢、時期などに関係なく実施できることから、401(k)に拠出しているなどの理由でRoth IRAに課税前拠出できない高額所得者が課税後所得から一旦通常IRAに拠出後すぐにRoth IRAに転換する「裏口(back-door)Roth IRA転換[1]」と言う合法的節税手法が存在する。例えば、2015年度の年収が25万ドルの50歳のA氏はRoth IRAの所得制限を超えており拠出できないが、一旦通常IRAに課税後拠出をしてすぐに転換すれば実質的にRoth IRAに拠出できる。もちろん転換時に通常IRAに資金があった間の当該転換額に運用益があれば転換時にそれに対する所得税を払わねばならないが、拠出から転換までが短期間なら少額或いは無税(運用益がゼロまたは損失の場合)で済み、「引出し」ではなく転換なので59歳半前の引出しに関わる罰金(10%の追加税)は科されず、IRAの運営会社(証券会社など)の費用もかからないのが普通である。, Roth IRA拠出の所得制限が骨抜きにされる裏口Roth IRA転換の抜け道に対処して、「Pro Rata(按分)規則」がある。Pro Rata規則では、当人の通常IRAと401(k)からの課税繰延ロールオーバーIRAなどすべてのIRAの資産を合算し、そのうちの課税後拠出分の割合に実際に転換される課税後拠出分を乗じた分だけが課税後拠出の転換の際に非課税となる(課税前拠出はもともと課税繰延なので転換時には全額課税対象)。例えば上記A氏が以前の勤務先の401(k)をロールオーバーしたIRAに48万4,500ドル(課税前拠出)あり、課税前拠出とその運用益合計1万ドルの残高を持つ通常IRAに課税後所得から5,500ドル拠出直後にこの課税後拠出5,500ドル全額をRoth IRAに転換すると、転換される5,500ドルの1.1%(5,500ドル÷(48万4,500ドル+1万ドル+5,500ドル))の60.50ドルだけが非課税で、残りの5,439.50ドルは所得税の対象となる。, ただし上記の合算には既に存在するRoth IRAと雇用者の提供する退職資金口座(401(k)など)は含まれないことを利用して、もしA氏が現在の勤務先に401(k)プランがありそのプランが外部ロールオーバーIRAからの資金の移転(ロールイン、再ロールオーバー)を受け入れるなら、A氏はロールオーバーIRAの資金を事前に全額401(k)に再ロールオーバーすることにより転換に関わる所得税対象を5,500ドルの約64.5%(100%-5,500ドル÷(1万ドル+5,500ドル))の3,548.39ドルに減少できる。しかし一般的にロールオーバーIRAの投資先が数百~数千の投資信託、ETF、ETPのような様々なファンドや個別株式・債券から幅広く選択できるのに対して、401(k)プランでは10~20の投資信託(と一部の上場会社では自社株式ファンド)に限定され、その会社を辞職するまでその401(k)プランから外部に(再々)ロールオーバーできないなどの制約があり、特に課税繰延ロールオーバーIRA内の資金が転換額に比べて多額の場合は、裏口Roth IRA転換で実現できる節税の利益は再ロールオーバーで生じる不利益に見合わないかもしれない。, 裏口Roth IRA転換が効果的な場合もある。夫婦であってもPro Rata規則はそれぞれの配偶者のIRAに摘要される(所得税課税および所得制限の算定は夫婦合算が可能)ので、例えばA氏の妻が課税後拠出だけの通常IRAを持ち、課税前拠出の通常IRAやロールオーバーIRAなどを一切持っていなければ、彼女は課税後拠出を全額非課税でRoth IRAに転換できる(通常IRAに資金があった間の運用益は課税対象)。, 証券会社や投資銀行が開設・運用するIRA口座で運用する。投資先は、投資信託や個別株式などで、通常の証券運用口座と基本的には変わりないが、外部口座との資金のやり取り(出し入れ)が上記の年齢や冷却期間などで制限されている違いがある。, IRA口座は長期に渡って継続的な資金の拠出が見込まれるので、例えば通常の証券口座なら最低2,000ドルの初期投資資金を要求するところを250ドルから始められるなど、運営会社は優遇措置で勧誘を図っている。, 通常IRAは課税前所得から拠出してその拠出額と運用益は実際の引き出しまで課税が繰り延べられるのに対して、Roth IRAは課税後所得から拠出してその運用益は非課税である。どちらの方法が最終的に得か損かは、以下のような様々な要素があり単純には決定できない。, 今ここで年収5万ドルの人がその10%をIRAに拠出し続けた場合の20年後を考える。単純化のために以下の条件とする。, となり、結果的にどちらの方法でも納税が早いか遅いかの違いだけで、消費にまわせる金額と引出し手取り金額は同一になる。もちろん、前述のように物価、所得、税率など予測不可能な時間的に変動する要素や累進課税があるので、実際には20年後に結果を比べるまで分からないが、一般に下記のように言われている。, ただし、アメリカ合衆国連邦所得税率の歴史的推移を見ると、累進税率の最高税率%/最低税率%は、88/19(1943年)、91/20(1963年)、50/0(1983年)、35/10(2003年)、40/10(2013年)と、時の経済状勢と政権の政策により大幅に変動しており[2]、退職まで10年単位の時間のある現在の勤労者が将来の所得税率を正確に予測することは事実上不可能である。, また、貯めた退職資金を自分のために使わず、死後に相続人に渡すことを優先するなら、引出しに課税されない課税後拠出(Roth IRA)が有利である。, 2014年1月28日に、アメリカ合衆国大統領バラック・オバマは年頭の一般教書演説で、従来の退職資金制度を利用しにくい低所得層が退職資金を貯めやすくするための「myRA(my Retirement Account)」制度を創設すると発表した。詳細および実現の可能性は不明だが、暫定的な概要は以下のとおり[3][4]で、総体的にRoth IRAに酷似している。, Fed U.S. Federal Individual Income Tax Rates History, 1862-2013, Low-Minimum Funds Well-Suited as myRA Alternatives, https://ja.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IRA_(アメリカ)&oldid=67498967, SIMPLE IRA (Savings Incentive Match Plan for Emplyees IRA), 拠出は課税前所得から(拠出金は所得税から控除できる)。ただし所得制限があり、高額所得者は拠出の一部若しくは全額が税控除できないが、拠出そのものは所得額に無関係に拠出限度内(2015年現在5,500ドル・6,500ドル)で可能, 本人または配偶者が勤務先の401(k)や403(b)のような課税繰延プランに加入している場合は、所得金額により拠出の一部若しくは全額が税控除できない, 本人の所得以上の金額を拠出することはできないが、「配偶者拠出」として一方の配偶者が他方の配偶者の拠出を肩代わりすることができる, 59歳半になる前に引き出すと、課税前拠出元金と課税繰延運用益の引出し額が通常の所得として課税されることに加えて10%の罰金(税金)が科される, 最低要求引出し額(Minimum Required Distribution、MRD、またはRMD)があり、70歳半になる年度以降は、その年の, 高額所得者は課税所得(Adjusted Gross Income, AGI、総所得から基礎控除、扶養控除、401(k)などの課税繰延分、健康保険料、州税や資産税、投資損失などを控除した残り)が一定額(独身者は112,000ドル、夫婦合算は178,000ドル)を超えると拠出限度額が漸次減少し、さらに一定額(独身者は127,000ドル、夫婦合算は188,000ドル、いずれも2014年現在)を超えるとまったく拠出できない。, 拠出元金は年齢に関わらずいつでも非課税で引き出し可能(課税後所得からの拠出であるから当然)。ただし通常IRAからの転換(下記)した資金は転換後5年の待機期間を置かなければならない, 運用益はそれを産んだ資金が拠出後5年間の待機期間を満たしていて59歳半を超えていれば非課税で引き出し可。更に居住用住居の購入のためなら年齢に関わらず生涯で1万ドルまで運用益を非課税で引き出し可(ただしその前の24ヶ月間に住居を所有していないこと), 雇用主が提供する退職資金プランが解散などで消滅した場合の受け皿(退職資金プラン自身は雇用主と独立しているので、たとえ雇用主が倒産してもそのプラン内の資金は保全され、多くの場合、運営会社が従業員個人のロールオーバーIRA口座を開設して資金を移転する), 雇用主が提供する退職資金プランは一般的に20~30程度の投資先しか提供しないが、ロールオーバーIRAでは証券会社の提供する数百の投資先から選べる, 複数の過去の雇用主提供退職資金プラン資金を一つのロールオーバーIRAにまとめられるので管理が楽になる(例えば、401(k)のMRDは毎年それぞれの401(k)口座の残高に見合った金額をそれぞれの口座から引き出さねばならないが、ロールオーバーIRAなら他の通常IRAと合算した残高に見合う金額をどの口座からでも引き出せばよい), 雇用主提供退職資金プラン口座内の資金は常に破産から保護されるが、州によってはロールオーバーIRAを含む雇用主提供退職資金プランでないIRAはそうでないことがある, 運用後IRA残高は年間拠出額5,000ドル(税控除前の10%)×20年×2倍=20万ドル, 消費に回せる純手取り額は5万ドルから20%の税控除後の4万ドルから10%の拠出を差し引いた, 運用後IRA残高は年間拠出額4,000ドル(20%税控除後の10%)×20年×2倍=16万ドル, 退職資金引き出し時の実効税率が現在の税率より高いと予想(例: 現在は就職したばかりの低所得の若年)なら課税後拠出が有利, 退職資金引き出し時の実効税率が現在の税率より低いと予想(例: 現在は比較的高所得の壮年で退職後は子の教育資金や住宅ローンが不要なので必要生活資金額が現役時代に比べて減る)なら課税前拠出が有利, 今までに退職資金のための貯蓄・投資をしたことのないような「貯蓄初心者」の貯蓄開始のきっかけを念頭, 初期拠出は25ドルから、その後の毎回の拠出額は5ドルからと低額で始められる(年間拠出限度額は5,500ドル+50歳以上の人は1,000ドル追加), 所得制限あり(単身者はAGIが129,000ドル以下、夫婦は191,000ドル以下、毎年物価上昇に合わせて更新), 投資益と元金の引き出しは非課税(ただし投資益の引き出し非課税のためには口座開設後5年以上、59歳半以上の条件あり), 投資先は国債のみ(したがってあまり高リターンを見込めないが元本を下回ることはない), 残高が15,000ドルに達するかまたは口座開設後30年経つとRoth IRAに転換, MRD(Mininum Required Distribution、最低要求引出し額)なし. 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